Since Antiquity, cities have been the crossroads of peoples and of the nuclei of civilization. Born along trade routes, they were essential poles for trade and have become centres of knowledge, innovation and economy. The role of cities has become increasingly important in recent decades and this trend is expected to intensify in the near future, due to the continued displacement of populations from rural to urban areas. Currently 55% of the world population lives in cities, and this proportion is expected to reach 70% by 2050. If today the city contributes to climate change, one can imagine that in the future it could help to decrease the impact of human activities on the environment. Cities must evolve to cope with the effects of climate change, such as heat waves, stronger wind intensities and more intense rains. To provide engineers with the skills and knowledge needed to work in the field of urban planning, this option aims to analyse the energy and environmental issues associated with the organization of urban agglomerations, in the context of a climate and a rapidly changing environment.
MOD mandator: " River hydraulics", "Climate Change" MOS mandatory: "Hydrology and hydrogeology"